One of my favorite Bible stories about listening is
1 Kings 19:9-13. It's probably not one of the Bible stories we read in context to young children without some tinkering.
Another story about listening - the boy Samuel in the temple. I Samuel 3
Men listening to Solomon is probably more along the lines of what a Sunday school teacher might be looking for, lol!
You also have the story Jesus told about the two sons. One said, I will and didn't do. One said, I won't but did do. Matt. 21:28-31
John 12:29 is a passage where God spoke but some of the people heard one thing, other people heard something else.
You can also do a Bible Gateway keyword search [HEARD + VOICE] or [LISTEN] and I'm sure there's more . . .
But here's the thing. When you're looking for a Bible story to teach a lesson, you probably have a specific objective in mind. You're probably looking for a Bible story to support and reinforce what you're trying to teach.
If, however (as an adult or leading youth), you take a topic or word like "Listen" and begin to search the scriptures to see and hear what the scriptures say about listening and hearing without specific objectives of your own, you may end up in an altogether different place ... you might find something very different from what you expected to find. But such is the adventure of searching the scriptures and walking with God and even the nature of story.